Botany 110 Review for Exam Two
Struggle for Existence
Inheritance and Accumulation of Favorable Variations
Survival and Reproduction of the Fittest
Charles Darwin, Alfred Russel Wallace
variation in environments in time and space
artificial selection in plant breeding
Modified plant parts: What is their function? In what kind of environment are they found? What plant organ are they modified from?
food and water storage
stolons (or runners)
shade vs sun leaves
arid leaf adaptations
antifreeze, dormancy, deciduous parts, insulation
armor, camouflage, ants
chemical defenses: secondary plant products such as tannins and alkaloids
Water movement in plants
diffusion and osmosis
cohesion-tension theory of water movement
pressure-flow hypothesis of movement through phloem
regulation of transpiration through stomates (how does the movement of potassium ions regulate the opening and closing of stomates?)
What are the many uses of water in plants?
Soil and nutrients
soil horizons (O, A, B, C)
soil genesis factors (parent material, climate, biota, topography, time)
soil texture (sand, silt, clay)
macro and micronutrients (Chopkins café mighty good)
inputs and outputs
source of oxygen in photosynthesis
absorption of different light spectra by chlorophyll
inputs, outputs and location of light dependent and light independent reactions
why have the dark reactions been renamed? what is new name?
what are ATP and NADPH used for? what is C6H12O6?
Growth, Development & Hormones:
What is growth? development?
For the following hormones, what are the major effects, where in the plant are they produced, and what (if any) commercial applications have been used?
abscisic acid (
What is apical dominance, and how is it controlled?
gravitropism, phototropism, heliotropism, hydrotropism, thigmotropism.
circadian rhythm, photoperiodism, phytochrome.