Energy sources and uses
Energy uses in developed countries
Note: Electricity is not an energy source, converted from another source (coal, hydro, nuclear, etc.).
Remember 1st and 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics
Evaluating Energy Resources
Net energy yield
Cost (initial and ongoing)
Political or international issues
Suitability in different locations
Polluting (air, water, noise, visual)
Important Nonrenewable Energy Sources
North American Energy Resources
OIL and NATURAL GAS
Accumulations of dead marine organisms on the ocean floor were covered by sediments.
Muddy rock gradually formed rock (shale) containing dispersed oil.
Sandstone formed on top of shale, thus oil pools began to form.
Natural gas often forms on top of oil.
Petroleum (crude oil)
Refining yields many products
Relatively low cost
High net energy yield
Efficient distribution system
Low prices encourage waste
Air pollution and greenhouse gases
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Controversy: Trade-offs
Would create jobs
Oil resources are uncertain
US supply 7-24 months
Uncertain environmental impacts
Oil Shale and Tar Sands
Cleanest of fossil fuels
Approximate 200 year supply
Advantages and disadvantages
Coal Formation and Types
Stages of coal formation
300 million year old forests
peat > lignite > bituminous > anthracite
Used mostly for generating electricity
Enough coal for about 200-1000 years
High environmental impact
Coal gasification and liquefaction
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency
Efficient electric motors
Increasing fuel economy
Hybrid and Fuel Cell Cars
Hybrid cars still use traditional fossil fuels
Energy otherwise wasted charges battery which assists acceleration and hill climbing
More efficient than internal combustion engine alone, but still uses non-renewable resources
Fuel cell cars not yet available
Hydrogen gas is fuel
Major infrastructure change
needed for fueling stations
Renewable energy sources
Using Solar Energy to Provide Heat
Passive solar heating
Active solar heating
Using Solar Energy to Provide High-Temperature Heat and Electricity
Solar thermal systems
Photovoltaic (PV) cells
Producing Electricity from Moving Water
Tidal power plant
Wave power plant
Producing Electricity from Wind
Producing Energy from Biomass
Biomass and biofuels
Geothermal heat pumps
Dry and wet steam
Molten rock (magma)
Hot dry-rock zones
The Hydrogen Revolution
Extracting hydrogen efficiently
Entering the Age of Decentralized Micropower
Decentralized power systems
Solutions: A Sustainable Energy Strategy
Energy Use and Waste
Drive a car that gets at least 15 kilometers per liter (35 miles per gallon) and join a carpool.
Use mass transit, walking, and bicycling.
Super-insulate your house and plug all air leaks.
Turn off lights, TV sets, computers, and other electronic equipment when they are not in use.
Wash laundry in warm or cold water.
Use passive solar heating.
For cooling, open windows and use ceiling fans or whole-house attic or window fans.
Turn thermostats down in winter and up in summer.
Buy the most energy-efficient homes, lights, cars, and appliances available.
Turn down the thermostat on water heaters to 43-49ēC (110-120ēF) and insulate hot water heaters and pipes.