Energy Resources

Chapter 10

Energy sources and uses

•Energy uses in developed countries

–industrial

–domestic

–transportation

•Note: Electricity is not an energy source, converted from another source (coal, hydro, nuclear, etc.). 

•Remember 1st and 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics

Evaluating Energy Resources

•Renewable

•Future availability

•Net energy yield

•Habitat degradation

•Cost (initial and ongoing)

•Community disruption

•Political or international issues

•Suitability in different locations

•Polluting (air, water, noise, visual)

 

Important Nonrenewable Energy Sources

North American Energy Resources

OIL and NATURAL GAS

•Accumulations of dead marine organisms on the ocean floor were covered by sediments.

•Muddy rock gradually formed rock (shale) containing dispersed oil.

•Sandstone formed on top of shale, thus oil pools began to form.

•Natural gas often forms on top of oil.

 

Oil

•Petroleum (crude oil)

•Costs:

•Recovery

•Refining

•Transporting

•Environmental

•Refining yields many products

•Asphalt

•Heating oil

•Diesel

•Petrochemicals

•Gasoline

•…

 

 

Conventional Oil

Advantages

•Relatively low cost

•High net energy yield

•Efficient distribution system

 

Disadvantages

•Running out 

•Low prices encourage waste

•Air pollution and greenhouse gases

•Water pollution

 

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Controversy: Trade-offs

•Would create jobs 

•Oil resources are uncertain

•US supply 7-24 months

•Uncertain environmental impacts

•Drilling controversies

 

Oil Shale and Tar Sands

Natural Gas

•50-90% methane

•Cleanest of fossil fuels

•Approximate 200 year supply

•Advantages and disadvantages

 

Coal Formation and Types

Coal

•Stages of coal formation

•300 million year old forests

•peat > lignite > bituminous > anthracite

•Primarily strip-mined

•Used mostly for generating electricity

•Enough coal for about 200-1000 years

•High environmental impact

•Coal gasification and liquefaction

 

Coal: Trade-offs

 

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

 

Energy Efficiencies

 

Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency

•Cogeneration

•Efficient electric motors

•High-efficiency lighting

•Increasing fuel economy

•Alternative vehicles

•Insulation

•Plug leaks

 

Hybrid and Fuel Cell Cars

•Hybrid cars still use traditional fossil fuels

–Energy otherwise wasted charges battery which assists acceleration and hill climbing

–More efficient than internal combustion engine alone, but still uses non-renewable resources

•Fuel cell cars not yet available

–Hydrogen gas is fuel

–Very efficient

–Low pollution

–Major infrastructure change

            needed for fueling stations

Renewable energy sources

•Solar

•Flowing water

•Wind

•Biomass

•Geothermal

•Hydrogen

Using Solar Energy to Provide Heat

Passive solar heating

 

Active solar heating

 

Using Solar Energy to Provide High-Temperature Heat and Electricity

•Solar thermal systems

•Photovoltaic (PV) cells

 

Producing Electricity from Moving Water

•Large-scale hydropower

•Small-scale hydropower

•Tidal power plant

•Wave power plant

 

Producing Electricity from Wind

Producing Energy from Biomass

•Biomass and biofuels

•Biomass plantations

•Crop residues

•Animal manure

•Biogas

•Ethanol

•Methanol

 

Geothermal Energy

•Geothermal heat pumps

•Geothermal exchange

•Dry and wet steam

•Hot water

•Molten rock (magma)

•Hot dry-rock zones

 

The Hydrogen Revolution

•Environmentally friendly

•Extracting hydrogen efficiently

•Storing hydrogen

•Fuel cells

 

Hydrogen Trade-offs

Entering the Age of Decentralized Micropower

•Decentralized power systems

•Micropower systems

 

Solutions:  A Sustainable Energy Strategy

Energy Use and Waste

•Drive a car that gets at least 15 kilometers per liter (35 miles per gallon) and join a carpool.

•Use mass transit, walking, and bicycling.

•Super-insulate your house and plug all air leaks.

•Turn off lights, TV sets, computers, and other electronic equipment when they are not in use.

•Wash laundry in warm or cold water.

•Use passive solar heating.

•For cooling, open windows and use ceiling fans or whole-house attic or window fans.

•Turn thermostats down in winter and up in summer.

•Buy the most energy-efficient homes, lights, cars, and appliances available.

•Turn down the thermostat on water heaters to 43-49ēC (110-120ēF) and insulate hot water heaters and pipes.