Evolution and Adaptation

Macroevolution

Microevolution

Gene pool

Mutation

Natural selection

Natural Selection

Genetic variability in a trait within population

Trait is heritable

Differential reproduction

 

Adaptive trait helps survival and reproduction under current conditions

Ecological Niches and Adaptation

Ecological niche

Habitat

 

Broad and Narrow Niches

Generalist species

Specialist species

Ecological Niches and Adaptation

Speciation, Extinction, and Biodiversity

Speciation

Geographic isolation

Reproductive isolation

Extinction

Background extinction

Mass extinction

Mass depletion

Extinction

Adaptive radiation

Human impacts

Human Impacts on Evolution

Artificial Selection

 

Genetic Engineering

 

Concerns about Genetic Engineering

Biomes: Life on Land

major vegetation types on land

forests, grasslands, deserts

tropical, temperate, polar

temperature and precipitation determine overall patterns

 

 

Biomes across 39th parallel

Altitude and latitude

Aquatic Life Zones

Aquatic Life Zones: Saltwater

Coastal zone

majority of marine species

Open ocean

90% of ocean area

Estuary

where rivers meet ocean

Coral reefs and mangrove forests

 

Ocean Zones

Freshwater Life Zones

Standing water

Flowing water

Types of Lakes: Oligotrophic

Types of Lakes: Eutrophic

Stream Systems

Runoff

Watershed

Drainage basin

Floodplain