Environmental Science Review Sheet Exam 3


energy issues:

fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas): origin, reserves, environmental concerns

3 grades of coal

surface vs. subsurface mining

renewable vs. non-renewable energy sources

pros and cons, definitions, environmental concerns about the following energy sources:

solar energy: direct vs. indirect

solar energy: passive vs. active

biomass fuels

wind energy

hydroelectric (and other sources of moving water) power


hybrid and hydrogen fuel cell cars

decentralized and micropower systems


major types of air pollution:

particulates, N oxides, C oxides, S oxides, VOCs (like hydrocarbons), ozone, PANs, aldehydes

for each know their major sources (both natural and anthropogenic if applicable), consequences, and control methods

troposphere and stratosphere, thermal inversion, primary vs. secondary air pollutants, industrial vs. photochemical smog, when/where is ozone not a pollutant? health effects

acid deposition: causes, formation in atmosphere, effects on lakes, organisms, structures, pH ranges.

what is the ozone hole? where is it and how does it affect us?

Clean Air Act of 1967 and revisions, Montreal Protocol 1987 and Copenhagen Protocol 1992

global climate change: what is the greenhouse effect? what are the primary greenhouse gases?


solid waste: what are the major components of our municipal solid waste stream? what are the most common disposal or treatment facilities? problems associated with each?

how can energy be generated from waste?

(refuse,) reduce, reuse, recycle: how does this slogan relate to reducing our solid waste problem?

resource exchange webs, biomimicry, service-flow economy

what are the problems associated with recycling plastics?

how can recycling programs be boosted?

how can consumers encourage recycling?


hazardous waste:

ways of being hazardous: Ignitability, Corrosiveness, Reactivity, Toxicity. what is not legally covered, but still hazardous?

some common hazardous wastes: PCBs, lead, mercury, arsenic. what are their effects and where do they come from?

how does environmental justice apply to this topic?

what policies control hazardous wastes, past and present? RCRA, CERCLA, Superfund

how do the sites at Love Canal, NY, Tacoma, WA, and Hanford, WA, relate to this topic?

methods of management and treatment of hazardous wastes


environmental economics, policy, and ethics

ecological economics


internal vs. external costs and full cost pricing

appropriate subsidies, green taxes, tradable pollution and resource-use rights

how does reducing poverty help the environment and vice versa?

principles to guide environmental policy

Growth Management Act

Planetary Management, Stewardship and Environmental Wisdom Worldview



Remember: you will also see questions from recent videos and student presentations.