fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas): origin, reserves, environmental concerns
3 grades of coal
surface vs. subsurface mining
renewable vs. non-renewable energy sources
pros and cons, definitions, environmental concerns about the following energy sources:
solar energy: direct vs. indirect
solar energy: passive vs. active
hydroelectric (and other sources of moving water) power
hybrid and hydrogen fuel cell cars
decentralized and micropower systems
major types of air pollution:
particulates, N oxides, C oxides, S oxides, VOCs (like hydrocarbons), ozone, PANs, aldehydes
for each know their major sources (both natural and anthropogenic if applicable), consequences, and control methods
troposphere and stratosphere, thermal inversion, primary vs. secondary air pollutants, industrial vs. photochemical smog, when/where is ozone not a pollutant? health effects
acid deposition: causes, formation in atmosphere, effects on lakes, organisms, structures, pH ranges.
what is the ozone hole? where is it and how does it affect us?
Clean Air Act of 1967 and revisions, Montreal Protocol 1987 and Copenhagen Protocol 1992
global climate change: what is the greenhouse effect? what are the primary greenhouse gases?
solid waste: what are the major components of our municipal solid waste stream? what are the most common disposal or treatment facilities? problems associated with each?
how can energy be generated from waste?
(refuse,) reduce, reuse, recycle: how does this slogan relate to reducing our solid waste problem?
resource exchange webs, biomimicry, service-flow economy
what are the problems associated with recycling plastics?
how can recycling programs be boosted?
how can consumers encourage recycling?
ways of being hazardous: Ignitability, Corrosiveness, Reactivity, Toxicity. what is not legally covered, but still hazardous?
some common hazardous wastes: PCBs, lead, mercury, arsenic. what are their effects and where do they come from?
how does environmental justice apply to this topic?
what policies control hazardous wastes, past and present? RCRA, CERCLA, Superfund
how do the sites at Love Canal, NY, Tacoma, WA, and Hanford, WA, relate to this topic?
methods of management and treatment of hazardous wastes
environmental economics, policy, and ethics
GDP vs. GPI
internal vs. external costs and full cost pricing
appropriate subsidies, green taxes, tradable pollution and resource-use rights
how does reducing poverty help the environment and vice versa?
principles to guide environmental policy
Growth Management Act
Planetary Management, Stewardship and Environmental Wisdom Worldview
Remember: you will also see questions from recent videos and student presentations.