Note: this guide is merely a general overview of the material in the chapters. It is not exhaustive, and it may be missing some key points. There is no substitute for making your own outline of a chapter while you are studying.
1. Read over the chapter contents on the first page of each chapter—this gives you an overview of what’s in the chapter and also shows you how it’s broken down into parts.
2. Look through all the graphics, the pictures and diagrams and read the captions. This helps you visualize while you are reading and also gives you some snap shots of what the author is presenting.
3. Read the brief reviews that summarize individual sections and the summary of the entire chapter.
4. Scan the list of terms. Do you really know what each term means? If you are not sure of the precise meaning, dig into the chapter and glossary to find out. Remember to use the index at the end of the book to help you find terms.
5. Be able to answer the questions for review.
6. Read the chapter and take notes as you read.
7. Go over your notes from class.
What is the difference between a hypothesis and a scientific theory?
You should be able to define both words. The scientific process is often called the empirical method because it is based on measurements and/or observations.
1. Know the locations and relative sizes of the principal oceans of Earth. What kind of land forms border the oceans?
2. Name the deepest ocean trench and explain when it first explored by humans.
3. Know the basics about the history of ocean exploration and how they contributed to our knowledge:
A. Early ocean explorations and. Examples: early Pacific islanders (4000 BC–900 AD), the Kon Tiki voyage, Phoenicians, Greeks, and Romans.
B. Oceanic explorations during the Middle Ages and contributions of Arabs, the Vikings, and the Ming Dynasty (1405-1433)
C. Explorations of European explorers during the Renaissance (Age of Discovery); examples include Prince Henry the Navigator, Vasco da Gama, Christopher Columbus, John Cabot, Vasco Nùñez de Balboa, Ferdinand Magellan, and Juan Sebastian del Caño.
D. What were the contributions of James Cook to early ocean science.
4. What are the systematic steps of the scientific method; explain why it is important.
5. Know how to explain the difference between a hypothesis and a theory.
6. Describe how the nebular hypothesis explains the formation of the solar system.
7. Compare and contrast Protoearth, and early Earth with modern Earth.
8. Describe density stratification in Earth and the resultant chemical structure. Be able to rouighly characterize the crust, mantle, and inner and outer core with respect to density and composition.
9. Describe the physical structure of Earth as it relates to the property of strength and brittle vs. weak and ductile in terms of the asthenosphere and lithosphere.
10. Distinguish between continental crust and oceanic crust including location, chemical, and physical properties of the crust.
11. What are isostatic adjustment and isostatic rebound.
12. Describe the formation of Earth’s early atmospheres
13. Describe how photosynthesis played a role in forming atmospheric oxygen; know how it changed through geologic time, and about its implications for life and the conditions suitable for life.
14. Describe how Earth’s oceans probably formed.
15. Discuss the origin of the salts in ocean water.
16. Discuss how scientists view the implications of Stanley Miller’s experiment involving the simulation of primitive Earth’s atmosphere on the origin of life on Earth.
17. What is the evidence for evolution by natural selection.
18. Define autotroph vs. heterotroph
19. Describe the process of radiometric dating for deriving the age of the Earth.
1. Describe some of the types of evidence that lead Alfred Wegener to formulate his Continental Drift theory.
2. How did geologist Harry Hess come up with the idea of Sea Floor Spreading?
3. Describe how paleomagnetism works and how it played a role in demonstrating sea floor spreading. What are magnetic reversals and magnetic stripes on the ocean floor?
4. What is the Theory of Plate Tectonics and what does it explain about earthquakes and volcanoes? What else does it explain, how?
5. Be able to explain the three different types of tectonic plate boundaries, how they behave, examples of each, and the geologic features of each.
6. Describe three types of convergent plate boundaries.
7. What is a volcanic arc?
8. Describe the overall age of the ocean floor vs. the age of or rocks composing the continents and explain why they are different.
9. What are mantle plumes and hot spots? Give an example of a landform created at a hotspot.
10. What are the stages in the development of a coral reef?
11. What is tectonic accretion?
12. What instrumentation allows us to determine and measure motions of tectonic plates?
Composition and Distribution
Origin, Composition, and Distribution
Distribution of Neritic and Pelagic Deposits: A Summary
Events Revealed by Sea Floor Sediments
Ocean Sediments as a Resource
Sand and Gravel
Phosphorite (Phosphate Minerals)
Manganese Nodules and Crusts
14. Sediments vs. sedimentary rock: sediments can be produced by weathering or by accumulation of organic material. Sediments include fragments of rock or mineral debris that accumulate (sand, silt, etc) or can included precipitates that come out of solution (salt, gypsum, calcium carbonate, silica, etc)
Know the four main types
sediments: lithogenous, biogenous, hydrogenous.
The Water Molecule
Interconnections of Molecules
Water: The Universal Solvent
Water’s Thermal Properties
Heat, Temperature, and Changes of State
Water’s Freezing and Boiling Points
Water’s Heat Capacity
Water’s Latent Heat
Dissolved Components Added and Removed from Seawater
Acidity and Alkalinity of Seawater
The pH Scale
The Carbonate Buffering System
Processes Affecting Seawater Salinity
Processes that Decrease Seawater Salinity
Processes that Increase Seawater Salinity
The Hydrologic Cycle
Surface and Depth Salinity Variation
Surface Salinity Variation
Depth Salinity Variation
Pycnocline and Thermocline
Comparing Pure Water and Seawater
Other Methods of Desalination
Uneven Solar Heating Effects
Distribution of Solar Energy
Oceanic Heat Flow
Atmospheric Physical Properties
Water Vapor Content
Coriolis Effect Influence On Moving Objects
Example 1: Perspective and Frames of Reference on a Merry-Go-Round
Example 2: A Tale of Two Missiles
Global Atmospheric Circulation
Circulation Cells: Idealized or Real?
Oceanic Weather and Climate Patterns
Weather Versus Climate
Sea and Land Breezes
Storms and Fronts
Ocean’s Climate Patterns
Sea Ice and Iceberg Formation
Formation of Sea Ice
Formation of Icebergs
1. Surface currents vs. Deep currents.
methods: floats, fixed devices
indirect methods: radar, satellites, doppler
deep water: ARGO, tracers
2. Effects of global winds, Coriolis effect, continents, and friction on surface currents.
3. Effects of salinity, temperature, density changes on thermohaline circulation, deep ocean conveyor belt
4. Effects of thermohaline circulation on climate.
5. Misc effects that influence circulation, sea surface elevation, upwelling/downwelling, biological productivity, etc
6. Gulf stream effects, Sargasso Sea
7. Monsoons--seasonal changes
What causes tides? What is the tidal bulge?
What is a tidal period?
What are Spring tides vs. Neap tides? Relate this to the position of the Moon in its orbit around the Earth.
Declination of the Moon and Sun--how does this effect the tidal bulge?
aphelion and perihelion vs. apogee and perigee? (p. 269)
Types of tidal patterns: what type do we have in the Puget Sound?
Influence of tides on biological cycles.
Potential use of tides for power: environmental effects?
Note coastal features related to wave refraction and longshore drift: tombolos, spits, baymouth bars, etc, and effects of breakwaters, jetties, and groins.
Examples of beach hardening or hard stabilization and effects thereof; beach replenishment, relocation.
swash, backwash, etc
Erosional shores, depositional shores and associated features; barrier islands, deltas, beach compartments/pocket beaches, submarine canyons, emerging shorelines, submerging shorelines.
Eustatic (global) sea level changes vs. isostatic adjustments (ex: rebounding of Earth's crust and changing relative sea level after glacial melting)
1. Know Earth's environmental spheres and how they interact.
2. Know feedback loops, paleoclimatology, proxy data examples, Oxygen isotopes
3. Milankovitch cycles; influence of sun on climate, etc
4. Influence of volcanoes on climate: could cause warming or cooling depending on style, type, size of eruption.
5. Past examples of fluctuating climate: Ice ages, Little Ice Age, Medieval optimum, etc.
6. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC
7. Know major "Greenhouse" gases, basic nature of Earth's heat budget, infrared energy etc
8. CO2, carbon cycle basics, impacts of fossil fuels.
9. Potential/likely changes to ocean from warming of climate.