Study guide to tectonics and terranes of the
Map Scales (types: bar, verbal, fraction; implications for area covered and detail?)
Projections (ex: conic, plane, cylindrical, interrupted, Mercator; equivalence vs. conformality)
Isolines and contour maps (contour interval, index contour; rule of v’s; how made—historically vs. today?, magnetic north vs. true north and declination)
Remote sensing: aerial photos, orthophotos, georeferencing, color/infrared, microwave, multispectral (LANDSAT), LIDAR; radar interfereometry)
Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
Geophysical imaging: gravity, seismic, magnetics
GIS—Geographic Information Systems
1) Rodinia and Belt Supergroup (1.5–1 Ga)
2) Rifting of Rodinia (750 Ma)
3) Kootenai coastal sediments (750–200 Ma) (Snowball Earth in NW?)
4) Pangaea (300–200 Ma)
5) Docking of Intermontane Superterrane—rocks of Okanagan Highlands: (What is terrane? …superterrane? see next lecture (180–170 Ma); new volcanic arc forms
6) Docking of Insular Superterrane (rocks of North Cascades (100–60 Ma)
7) Eocene-to-Miocene Sandstones and volcanics (55–20 Ma)
10) Ice Ages (1.6 Ma–11,500 yr B.P.)
11) Modern Cascades Volanoes, 2 Ma to today
Geologic Time Scale USGS revised geologic time scale 2007
Age of Earth
First life 3.8–3.5 Ga? (Prokaryotes)
Oxygen revolution ~2.4 Ga Stromatolite fossils, cyanobacteria, Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes; Snowball Earth #1;
Eukaryotes? 2.1–1.5 Ga?,
Precambrian rocks—where? Craton, basement rocks? How to study basement rocks? Rb87-Sr87
Parent vs. daughter product> 0.706 line for Sr87.
How to study basement? (windows, cores, inclusions, geophysics).
Thickness of Belt rocks (15–20 km)
Belt rock types (Ss, Sltstn, Ls, Sh); Structures (ripple marks, raindrop imprints; fossils (stromatolites)
Environment of deposition?
How to grow a continent? Sedimentation, subduction, collision??
What are terranes? …superterranes?
Types of terrane? hot spot, island arc, small continent, oceanic spreading ridges, microcontinents. (types of rocks for each?)
Where did terrane originate? rock types, microcontinents, fossils, sediment provenance, and paleomagnetics
Paleomagnetics (inclination vs. declination)
Major terranes of WA
North Cascades rocks: Terrane groupings! 95 Ma. Some were “exotic terranes”; melange