Review Sheet, Lecture Test Two,  Botany 113  Spring 2006


Reproductive Parts


Flower parts:  petals, sepals, stamens (anther, filament), pistils (stigma, style, ovary) [= the four basic parts] plus receptacle, peduncle, pedicle.  corolla, calyx, perianth.  


incomplete vs. complete flower


connate, adnate


Flower symmetry:  zygomorphic (irregular, bilateral symmetry), actinomorphic (regular, radial symmetry)


Flower sexuality:  perfect vs. imperfect, staminate, pistillate, monoecious, dioecious, synoecious


Position of flower parts:  perigynous, hypogynous, epigynous, superior vs. inferior ovary.


Placentation: parietal, free central, axile, apical, basal


Infloresence types: spike, raceme, panicle, catkin, umbel, spadix, head and solitary.


Fruit types: drupe, berry, pepo, hesperidium, pome, follicle, legume, capsule, silique achene, samara, hip, caryopsis, nut, mulitple fruit, and aggregate fruit.


How can a carpel be determined?  (Highest number of: stigma lobes, styles, locules, placentae)


Phylogenetic characteristics that would indicate primitive or advanced features

Period and age in millions of years of oldest flowers


Pollination vs. fertilization, flower traits associated with certain pollinators, fruits with seed dispersers.