Review Sheet

Lecture Test One 

Botany 113 


Systematics (studying biodiversity) and Taxonomy (naming and organizing biodiversity): What do systematists and taxonomists do?  Why is this field important to other biologists and non-scientists?  What is the difference between doing taxonomy and using taxonomy?


History of botany and classification.  How do these schemes differ?  Know their important users or proponents: 

·         function - preliterate humans, Dioscorides, herbalists (many for medicinal use)

·         form - Theophrastus (trees, shrubs, subshrubs, herbs)

·         artificial - Linnaeus (placed plants in families according to just one feature like stamens)

·         natural affinities – early systems by de Jussieu and de Candolle families, last by Bentham and Hooker (evolution accepted, but plant groupings by similar features, not as if they may change over time)

·         phylogenetic – Engler, Bessey, Hutchinson, Cronquist, many others (based on evolutionary relationships)


Format for scientific species names: (1) Latin or latinized; (2) binomial nomenclature: (at least) 2 words (genus and specific epithet); (3) first letter of genus name capitalized, all others lower case; (4) underlined or italicized; (5) authors name may follow in a formal written report; (6) special formats for subspecies (or variety, race), hybrids, cultivated varieties. 

Polynomial (phrase) vs Binomial names: why the switch?

Classification scheme for all living things: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species (then variety or subspecies)


Standard endings added to a representative genus name

phylum –phyta              

class –opsida               

order –ales       

family -aceae, e.g., Rosaceae.


Terms to know

gymnosperm, angiosperm, dicot, monocot,

annual, biennial, perennial, herb, shrub, tree, vine, woody, herbaceous. 


Shoot terms:  lenticel, vascular bundle scar, leaf scar, node, internode, pith, annual rings, terminal bud scale scar, xylem, phloem, apical meristem, vascular cambium, epidermis, stomate, sterigmata, fascicle, terminal and axillary buds

Leaf parts:  petiole, rachis, blade, veins, margin, stipule, stomatal bands, midrib

Leaf shape:  linear, needle-like, scale-like, ovate, obovate, orbicular, cordate, elliptical, lanceolate, oblanceolate

Leaf margin:  entire, serrate, doubly serrate, sinuate, lobed, dentate, crenate, revolute

Leaf venation: parallel , netted (reticulate): palmate, pinnate

Leaf compounding: simple, pinnate, palmate, bipinnate, pinnatifid

Phyllotaxy: alternate, opposite, whorled, basal – how many leaves per node for each?

Leaf attachment: petiolate, sessile, clasping, sheathing


(The following may be on either exam one or two)

Flower parts:  petals, sepals, stamens (anther, filament), pistils (stigma, style, ovary) [= the four basic parts] plus receptacle, peduncle, pedicle.  corolla, calyx, perianth.  incomplete vs. complete flower, connate, adnate, androecium, gynoecium