Systematics (studying biodiversity) and Taxonomy (naming and organizing biodiversity): What do systematists and taxonomists do? Why is this field important to other biologists and non-scientists? What is the difference between doing taxonomy and using taxonomy?
History of botany and classification. How do these schemes differ? Know their important users or proponents:
· function - preliterate humans, Dioscorides, herbalists (many for medicinal use)
· form - Theophrastus (trees, shrubs, subshrubs, herbs)
· artificial - Linnaeus (placed plants in families according to just one feature like stamens)
· natural affinities early systems by de Jussieu and de Candolle families, last by Bentham and Hooker (evolution accepted, but plant groupings by similar features, not as if they may change over time)
· phylogenetic Engler, Bessey, Hutchinson, Cronquist, many others (based on evolutionary relationships)
Format for scientific species names: (1) Latin or latinized; (2) binomial nomenclature: (at least) 2 words (genus and specific epithet); (3) first letter of genus name capitalized, all others lower case; (4) underlined or italicized; (5) authors name may follow in a formal written report; (6) special formats for subspecies (or variety, race), hybrids, cultivated varieties.
Polynomial (phrase) vs Binomial names: why the switch?
Classification scheme for all living things: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species (then variety or subspecies)
family -aceae, e.g., Rosaceae.
Terms to know
gymnosperm, angiosperm, dicot, monocot,
annual, biennial, perennial, herb, shrub, tree, vine, woody, herbaceous.
Shoot terms: lenticel, vascular bundle scar, leaf scar, node, internode, pith, annual rings, terminal bud scale scar, xylem, phloem, apical meristem, vascular cambium, epidermis, stomate, sterigmata, fascicle, terminal and axillary buds
Leaf parts: petiole, rachis, blade, veins, margin, stipule, stomatal bands, midrib
Leaf shape: linear, needle-like, scale-like, ovate, obovate, orbicular, cordate, elliptical, lanceolate, oblanceolate
Leaf margin: entire, serrate, doubly serrate, sinuate, lobed, dentate, crenate, revolute
Leaf venation: parallel , netted (reticulate): palmate, pinnate
Leaf compounding: simple, pinnate, palmate, bipinnate, pinnatifid
Phyllotaxy: alternate, opposite, whorled, basal how many leaves per node for each?
Leaf attachment: petiolate, sessile, clasping, sheathing
(The following may be on either exam one or two)
Flower parts: petals, sepals, stamens (anther, filament), pistils (stigma, style, ovary) [= the four basic parts] plus receptacle, peduncle, pedicle. corolla, calyx, perianth. incomplete vs. complete flower, connate, adnate, androecium, gynoecium