Botany 110  Review for Exam Two     

 

Natural Selection

Variation

Overproduction

Struggle for Existence

Inheritance and Accumulation of Favorable Variations

Survival and Reproduction of the Fittest

Charles Darwin, Alfred Russel Wallace

gene mutation

variation in environments in time and space

artificial selection in plant breeding

 

Modified plant parts:  What is their function?  In what kind of environment are they found?  What plant organ are they modified from?

food and water storage

propagative roots

adventitious roots

root nodules

mycorrhizae

velamen roots

prop roots

pneumatophores

buttress roots

parasitic roots

stolons (or runners)

rhizome

corm

bulb

tuber

cladophyll

spine

thorn

prickle

shade vs sun leaves

arid leaf adaptations

insect-trapping leaves

 

Other adaptations for protection

antifreeze, dormancy, deciduous parts, insulation

armor, camouflage, ants

chemical defenses: secondary plant products such as tannins and alkaloids

 

Water movement in plants


diffusion and osmosis

turgor pressure

active transport

transpiration

plasmolysis

capillary action

root pressure

guttation


cohesion-tension theory of water movement

pressure-flow hypothesis of movement through phloem

regulation of transpiration through stomates (how does the movement of potassium ions regulate the opening and closing of stomates?)

What are the many uses of water in plants? 

 

Soil and nutrients

soil horizons (O, A, B, C)

soil genesis factors (parent material, climate, biota, topography, time)

soil texture (sand, silt, clay)

macro and micronutrients (Chopkins café mighty good)

 

Photosynthesis

summary equation

inputs and outputs

simple products

source of oxygen in photosynthesis

absorption of different light spectra by chlorophyll

inputs, outputs and location of light dependent and light independent reactions

why have the dark reactions been renamed?  what is new name?

what are ATP and NADPH used for?  what is C6H12O6?

 

Growth, Development & Hormones:

What is growth?  development?

For the following hormones, what are the major effects, where in the plant are they produced, and what (if any) commercial applications have been used? 

abscisic acid (ABA), auxin, cytokinin, ethylene, and gibberellin. 

What is apical dominance, and how is it controlled? 

 

Plant movements:

gravitropism, phototropism, heliotropism, hydrotropism, thigmotropism.

circadian rhythm, photoperiodism, phytochrome.