Botany 110 Review for Exam One



What benefit to people derive from plants?

What is the science of Botany?                                                                          

What defines a plant?                                                                                        


Kinds of plants

What makes each of these groups distinct?

Growth types: annual, biennial, perennial, shrub, tree, woody, herbaceous

Major groups of plants: angiosperms, gymnosperms, ferns (and relatives), mosses (and relatives).

Dicots vs. Monocots: number of cotyledons, leaf venation, root systems, presence of woody tissue. 

What major group do all monocots and dicots belong to?



What were the contributions of van Leeuwenhoek, Hooke, Pasteur?

What is the cell theory?

Cell components: cell membrane, cell wall, mitochrondrion, vacoule, nucleus, cytoplasm, ribosome, and chloroplast

What is the function of each?  Be able to identify each on a figure.                        

What is the cell wall made of?

What is the middle lamella?

Which parts are living?

What is cyclosis? 



Function of a seed?

Parts of a seed: seed coat, cotyledon, embryo, radicle, shoot, endosperm

Germination requirements: Scarification, After-ripening, Stratification, Heat treatment, Inhibiting chemicals, Allelopathy, Fire

Seed longevity


Growth Process:

cell division and cell expansion

meristems: apical, lateral, intercalary

what kinds of plants have each?

which produce primary tissue?  secondary?

identify 4 stages of mitosis: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

what happens during interphase?




Function of roots?

depth and surface area

root cap, apical meristem, region of elongation, root hair zone

root hairs vs. lateral roots

fibrous vs. taproot systems



Function of stems?

twig parts: axillary and terminal buds, node, internode, terminal bud scale scar, leaf scar, vascular bundle scar, lenticels

inside bud: apical meristem, leaf primordia, axillary bud primordia



Function of leaves?

compound vs. simple

pinnately and palmately compound leaves

opposite, alternate, whorled

stipules, petiole, rachis, leaflets, blade, margin

parallel, reticulate, pinnate, palmate & dichotomous venation

What is unusual about how grass leaves grow?


Tissue types

primary vs. secondary tissues

simple vs. complex tissues


xylem: vessels, tracheids, ray parenchyma, fibers

phloem: sieve tube cells, companion cells, ray parenchyma, fibers

meristems: apical, lateral, intercalary

What is the function of each cell type and tissue type?  How are they produced? 

Which tissues are alive at maturity?  Which ones dead? 


Inside stems

primary stem tissues: epidermis, cortex, pith, primary xylem, primary phloem

secondary stem tissues: periderm, cork, lenticels, secondary xylem, secondary phloem

lateral meristems produce secondary tissues: vascular cambium, cork cambium

Where in a stem are these tissues found?  In what kinds of stems? 

What is wood?  How is it produced? 

What are tree rings?  What do they have to do with: spring wood, summer wood?

What is heartwood and sapwood?

How is the chemical composition of woody cells different than herbaceous cells? 

How is wood used? 

What is a knot?


Inside roots

epidermis, endodermis

cortex, pith


casparian band

xylem, phloem

lateral roots

root cap

apical meristem

region of elongation

region of maturation

root hairs


Inside leaves


palisade mesophyll

spongy mesophyll






guard cells

abcission, separation layer, protective layer


Know the tissues and their patterns of arrangement

root, stem or leaf? 

monocot or dicot?

which have a true pith?

primary or secondary tissue?

herbaceous or woody plant parts?

which are composed of parenchyma?

which are alive?  which are dead?