Stephen Francis Norton


Contact Information

Centralia College

600 Centralia College Blvd.

Centralia, WA 98531

360-736-9391, ext. 261



B.A.     Harvard University, 1980 (cum laude in Biology)

M.A.    University of California at Santa Barbara, 1983

Ph.D.   University of California at Santa Barbara, 1989


Professional Positions:

2006 – present:  Assistant Professor, Centralia College.  My teaching responsibilities include the introductory biology series for intended biology majors and foundation courses for students interested in health-related careers.  The latter include a year-long sequence in Anatomy and Physiology and a one-quarter course in Microbiology.  I have also taught Survey of Biology, a course designed for non-majors.

2005:  Visiting Faculty Member, The Evergreen State College.  With Erik Thuesen, I co-taught a two quarter program, Marine Life.  This upper-level program integrated concepts and approaches from marine biology, marine ecology, biological, physical, and chemical oceanography, and conservation biology to explore the diversity found along our coasts, in the open ocean, and in the deep sea.  Students progressed from instructor-led field trips and lab exercises during winter quarter to independent research projects during spring quarter.  After our instruction, students applied a variety of statistical tools (e.g., ANOVA, regression, X2) to analyze data that they collected from prepared labs or from the small-group projects that they conducted spring quarter.

2002 – 2004:  Visiting Assistant Professor, Environmental Studies Program, University of Puget Sound.  I taught lecture and lab sections of Introduction to Environmental Science, an all-level course primarily for non-science students.  In spring 2003, I also led the Senior Seminar in Environmental Studies in which we investigated issues surrounding marine reserves, with a special focus on the proposal by Washington DNR to develop marine reserves on land that they manage for the state.  In spring 2004, I taught Conservation Biology, a senior-level course for biology majors.

1993 - 2002:    Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of Biology, East Carolina University.  I taught lecture and laboratory courses at the undergraduate and graduate level and I supervised the lab staff and 6+ teaching assistants for Principles of Biology I.  I advised Biology and General College undergraduates.  I supervised research projects conducted by graduate and undergraduate students.  I served on departmental and university committees.  I conducted and published scientific research on the predator-prey interactions of fishes and their invertebrate prey.

1991 - 1993     Postdoctoral Research Associate, Department of Zoology, University of Maine with Dr. Bruce Sidell.  I conducted research on the scaling of activity of aerobic and anaerobic enzymes in the red and white axial muscle of striped bass and on the oxygen flux through aerobic pectoral fin muscles of Antarctic Notothenioid fishes (supported by the National Science Foundation).

1989 - 1991     Postdoctoral Research Associate, Fisheries Research Institute, College of Ocean and Fisheries Science, University of Washington with Dr. Bruce Miller.  I conducted research on the effects of temperature on capture success in cottid fishes and on the evolution and comparative ecology of snail-punching cottids.

1990 - 1991     Visiting Lecturer, East/West Program, Northeastern University. I co-taught field courses on "Diving Research Methods" at Friday Harbor Laboratories and "The Biology of Fishes" at the Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory, Jamaica

1988 - 1989     Lecturer, Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, University of Chicago.  I was a lab instructor for "Human Morphology" course for first year medical students.

1988            Visiting Lecturer, Marine Science Center, Northeastern University.  I taught a field biology course, "Biology of Fish" with Dr. Les Kaufmann.

1987 - 1988     Assistant Curator of Fishes, University of California, Santa Barbara.  I maintained the teaching and research collection of southern California fishes.

1980 - 1988     Teaching Assistant, University of California, Santa Barbara. I was a teaching assistant for "Introductory Biology", "Functional Design of Fishes", "Evolution and Behavioral Ecology of Terrestrial Vertebrates", "Vertebrate Evolutionary Morphology", "Principles of Evolution", "Aquatic Communities", "Systematics of Fishes".

1986                Visiting Lecturer, Carleton College. I lectured on the natural history of Pacific Coast fishes during Carleton College's "Semester-by-the-Sea" Program at Friday Harbor Laboratories, WA. and at the Catalina Marine Science Institute, CA.

1977-1980       Research Assistant to Dr. K.P. Sebens, Harvard University.  I conducted laboratory and field research on the community ecology of subtidal benthic invertebrates and fishes in the Gulf of Maine.

1977                Research Assistant to Dr. R.W. Wrangham, Harvard University.  I summarized and collated published data on the biology and ecology of Indian langurs and African baboons.


Honors and Awards:

1987                Honorable Mention, Best Student Paper Award, Division of Vertebrate Morphology, American Society of Zoologists

1985                ARCO Best Student Paper Award, Western Society of Naturalists

1984, 1985      Regents' Fellowship, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara

1980, 1981      Honorable Mention, National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship Program

1980                Magna cum laude for senior honors thesis, "Seasonal feeding ecology of a benthic

                        predator, Myoxocephalus aeneus, in the Gulf of Maine".

1978                Earthwatch Scholarship


Teaching Experience at The Evergreen State College

Marine Life*#


Teaching Experience at the University of Puget Sound

Environmental Studies 105 – Environmental Science*#

Environmental Studies 400 – Senior Seminar in Environmental Studies#

Biology 370A - Conservation Biology*#


Teaching Experience at East Carolina University

Biology 1050 – General Biology*#

Biology 1100 – Principles of Biology I*#

Biology 2130 – Survey of Human Anatomy and Physiology#

Biology 3660 – Introduction to Marine Biology*#

Biology 4200/4201& 6800/6850 – Population and Community Ecology*#&

Biology 5550/5551 - Ichthyology*#&

I also have contributed to several team-taught interdisciplinary courses including COAS 2025 (Survey of Coastal and Marine Resources) and COAS 5000 (Shipboard and Underwater Research Techniques).


* - course taught exclusively with multimedia lectures, # - undergraduate course, & - graduate course


Research Publications - Peer-Reviewed Articles:

Norton, S.F., Z.A. Eppley & B.D. Sidell. (2000)  Allometric scaling of maximal enzyme activities in axial muscle of striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum).  Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 73:819-828.


Dowse, H.B., S.F. Norton, and B.D. Sidell (2000).  The estimation of the diffusion constant and solubility of O2 in tissue using kinetics. Journal of Theoretical Biology 207:531-541.


T.J. McConnell, U.B. Goodwin, S.F. Norton, R.S. Nairn, S. Kazianis, and D.C. Morizot.  1998.  Identification and mapping of two divergent, unlinked major histocompatibility complex class II B genes in Xiphophorus fishes.  Genetics 149:1921-1934.


Norton, S.F.  1995.  A functional approach to ecomorphological patterns of feeding in cottid fishes. Environmental Biology of Fishes  44: 61-78.


Norton, S.F., J.J. Luczkovich, & P.J. Motta.  1995.  The role of ecomorphological studies in the comparative biology of fishes.  Environmental Biology of Fishes 44: 287-304.


Motta, P.J., S.F. Norton, & J.J. Luczkovich.  1995.  Perspectives on the ecomorphology of bony fishes.  Environmental Biology of Fishes 44: 11 -20.


Luczkovich, J.J., S.F. Norton & G. Gilmore.  1995.  The influence of oral anatomy on the prey selection during the ontogeny of two percoid fishes, Lagodon rhomboides and Centropomus unidecimalis.  Environmental Biology of Fishes 44:79-85.


Norton, S.F. & E.L. Brainerd.  1993.  Convergence in the feeding mode of ecomorphologically similar species in the Centrarchidae and Cichlidae. Journal of Experimental Biology 176:11-29


Norton, S.F.  1991.  The role of predator morphology and kinematics in attack success of cottid fishes. Ecology 72: 1807-1819.


Norton, S.F.  1991.  Habitat use and community structure in an assemblage of cottid fishes. Ecology 72: 2181-2192.


Norton, S.F. 1988.  The role of the gastropod shell and operculum in inhibiting predation by fishes. Science 241 : 92-95


Kuris, A.M. & S.F. Norton. 1985.  Evolutionary importance of overspecialization: insect parasitoids as an example. American Naturalist 126:387-391.


Lauder, G.V. & S.F. Norton. 1980.  Asymmetrical muscle activity during feeding in the gar, Lepisosteus oculatus.  Journal of Experimental Biology 84:17-32.


Research Publications in Proceedings, Book Chapters, Reviews:

Norton, S.F. and C.D. Stallings.  1999.  The distribution and abundance of three aposematic, chemically defended gammarid amphipods off Bell Island, WA.  Pp. 75-86 in J.N. Heine, D. Canestro and G. Wuttken (eds.), Diving for Science…1999.  Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences.


Norton, S.F. and A.E. Cook.  1998.  Predation by fishes in the intertidal.  Pages 223-263.  In Intertidal Fishes:  Life in Two Worlds, (M.H. Horn, K.L.M. Martin, and M.A. Chotkowski, eds.).  Academic Press, San Diego, CA


Norton, S.F.  1995.  An evolutionary perspective on ecology and morphology. A review of Ecological Morphology: Integrative Organismal Biology  P.C. Wainwright & S.M. Reilly (eds.). Ecology 76: 2677-2678.


Research Publications - Books:

S.F. Norton (ed.).  2003.  Diving for Science 2003.  Proceeding of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences.


J.J. Luczkovich, P.J. Motta, S.F. Norton, and K.F. Liem (eds.). 1995. Ecomorphology of Fishes, Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.


Research Manuscripts:

Norton, S.F. & A.C. Lamb.  The evolution of snail-punching in cottid fishes.  In revision.


Norton, S.F.  A comparison of prey selection and handling behavior by two snail-punching cottids, Asemichthys taylori and Radulinus boleoides.  In prep.


Zalewski, J.A. and S.F. Norton.  Predator-prey interactions between three species of chemically-defended, of aposematic gammarid  amphipods and cottid fishes.  In prep.


Norton, S.F. and M.E.  Hutchinson.  Evidence of Mullerian mimicry in the predator-prey interactions between naive fishes and chemically defended gammarid amphipods. In prep.


M.E. Hutchinson and S.F. Norton.  Ontogeny and regeneration of chemical defense in the gammarid amphipods: Chromopleustes oculatus, Ch. lineatus, and Cryptodius kelleri.  In prep.


Extramural Funding:

1999    The role of habitat limitation and predator defense for aggregation in aposematic, chemically-defended gammarid amphipods.  Funded by PADI Foundation, $6200 to support field research by Medolian Corey Pressley, one of my graduate students at E.C.U.


Teaching Publications

Norton, S.F.  2001.  Virtual field trips / site briefings for the internet.  Pp. 65-69 in S.C. Jewett (ed.), Cold Water Diving for Science.  Proceedings of the 21st Annual Scientific Diving Symposium.  University of Alaska Sea Grant AK-SG-01-06.


Norton, S.F.  2002.  PowerPoint Lectures to Accompany Biology 6th Edition by Neil A. Campbell and Jane B. Reece.  CD available from Addison Wesley.


Nortons S.F.  2002.  Rocky and Wreck Fishes of North Carolina: A Web-based Field Guide [ Fish/index.html]


Intramural Funding:

2000    Virtual Field Trips for Marine Biology and Ichthyology.  Funded by the E.C.U. Teaching Grants Committee, $8380.


Professional Societies:

American Association for the Advancement of Science

Ecological Society of America

Sigma Xi


Professional Service:

            I have reviewed manuscripts for Journal of Experimental Biology, Marine Ecology Progress Series, Journal of Morphology, Marine Biology, and Journal of Fish Biology and grant proposals for the National Science Foundation and SeaGrant.


2005    Member of the Scientific Advisory Committee for the San Juan County Marine Resources Commission


2003    Member of the Scientific Advisory Committee for the Washington Department of Natural Resources Marine Reserve Program


2002/2003       Local planning/organizing committee for the annual meeting of the American Association of Underwater Scientists, held at E.C.U. in spring 2003.


2001    Mentor to a minority student in the Blinks Fellows in Marine Research Program at Friday Harbor Laboratories, Friday Harbor, Washington.


2001    Guest Reader, Sigma Xi Grant-in-Aid of Research Committee


2000    Member, Nominating Committee for Western Society of Naturalists


1998    Mentor for two minority students in the Blinks Fellows in Marine Research Program at Friday Harbor Laboratories, Friday Harbor, Washington.


1996, 1997      Member, Nominating Committee for the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology.


1994    Visiting Scientist for the Summer Undergraduate Research in Biology program (funded by NSF) at Pepperdine University.


1992    Co-organizer of the symposium "The ecomorphological relationships of fishes" for the annual meeting of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. Published in October 1995 in Environmental Biology of Fishes with my co-editors, P.J. Motta, J.J. Luczkovich, and K.F. Liem. The volume was published separately as Ecomorphology of Fishes by Kluwer Academic Publishers.


University Service at E.C.U.:

2001 – 2002                member of College of Arts and Sciences Search Committee for a Visualization Scientist

2001 - 2002                 member of the Undergraduate Education Assessment Committee in Biology

1999 - 2002                 Chair of E.C.U. Diving and Boating Safety Control Board

1997-1999                   member of E.C.U. Diving Safety Control Board

1998 - 2002                 member of the interdisciplinary program in Coastal Studies, E.C.U.

1998 - 2002                 member of the Coastal Resource Management Ph.D. program, E.C.U.

1998 - 2002                 member of Undergraduate Curriculum Committee in Biology, E.C.U.

1998 - 2002                 member of Boat Committee in Biology, E.C.U.

1995 - 2002                 advisor for 30+ General College and Biology undergraduates, E.C.U.


Invited Symposium Seminars

1992    Invited speaker for the symposium, “Ecomorphology of fishes” for the annual meeting of the American Society for Ichthyology and Herpetology.


1994    Invited speaker for the symposium, "Intertidal fishes: life in two worlds" for the annual meeting of the American Society for Ichthyology and Herpetology.


Invited Research Seminars:

2006                Zoology Department, Oregon State University

2003                Environmental Studies Program, The Evergreen State College

2003                Department of Biology, University of Puget Sound

2001                Department of Biology, East Carolina University

2001, 1995, 1989, 1985          Friday Harbor Laboratories, Univ. of Washington

2000                Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Wilmington

1999                Duke University Marine Laboratory, Beaufort, NC

1998                Institute for Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Morehead City, NC

1995, 1996      Department of Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL

1993                College of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, Maine

1992                Fish Department, Harvard University

1991, 1992      Department of Zoology University of Maine at Orono

1989, 1990      College of Fisheries, Univ. of Washington

1989                Department of Biological Sciences, Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

1988                Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, Univ. of Chicago

1986                Moss Landing Marine Laboratory